central asia

A Tantalising Journey Along the Legendary Silk Road

journey profile

Where: Almaty, Bishkek, Son-Kul, Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Khojand.
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan & Tajikistan, Central Asia. 
When: July and August 2014
What: The Registan, Tashkent TV Tower, Zizkov Cathedral, Central Asian Bazaars, Soviet Era Architecture, Silk Road Route, Uzbekistan Railways, Ala-Too Square, Yurt Stay on Mountain Plateau, Horse Riding, Mud Brick Houses, Rug Making, Gur-e Complex, The Ark, Char-Minar, Lenin Statues and Portraits.
Counter: 4 countries
Illnesses or mishaps: Major bout of Kyrgyzstan belly which had me projectile vomiting just hours before a flight to Uzbekistan. Dealing with the very early onset of altitude sickness from sleeping in a yurt at 3000m leading to heart palpitations and a very bad sleep!

 

Central Asia is made up of five 'Stan countries: Kasakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan. It's a region of the world which remains untouched by the majority of travellers - but the word is spreading. It remains a region for the hardy traveller only. Indeed, Simon Reeve the TV traveller journeyed through the 'Stans for his series ominously entitled 'Holidays in the Danger Zone'. Afghanistan, which straddles Tajikistan's eastern border, is sufficiently distinct from the other five to not be considered part of the Central Asia region. It is rumoured that Stalin himself drew the lines on the map which now make up the five 'Stan countries. Despite being in the same region, and having a shared communist past, there are rivalries and conflicts which gently simmer - resulting in some borders opening and closing unpredictably and some still being decided upon! Since independence, each 'Stan has tried to carve out its own identity, consolidating cultural practices, looking to the past for national heroes - all with mixed results. The fact remains that none of these countries even existed less than a century ago. Among all of the Soviet republics, those in Central Asia were, perhaps, the least ready for independence when the communist system unravelled in 1991. Indeed, many of the people in charge at the time of the collapse still hold power to this day. One major concern keeping the West awake at night is who will replace the current ageing presidents of these countries - many of whom have stifled political opposition and potential presidential challengers. It is also a region concerned about the possible 'spill-over' effects from more unstable countries bordering the region - namely Afghanistan. Despite Islam making up a huge chunk of the population in many of these countries, you will not hear the call to prayer anywhere: countries in Central Asia are anxious about the potential Islamisisation of the region, a fear which serves to enhance their 'police state' approach to security which, in my opinion, blights any tourist's experience in this part of the world. The level of checks and the need to fill in or collect silly slips of paper are annoying at best, sinister and invasive at worst.

This was a four-country journey which excluded Turkmenistan, the most extreme of all of the 'Stans. Visas are very difficult to obtain and it is also suggested that hotel rooms are bugged. So, we thought we'd pass on Turkmenistan - we did not have time for all five, anyway, and applying for three visas was certainly enough to contend with (Kyrgyzstan is visa-free for UK passport holders). Travelling between countries required a mixture of land and air travel owing ‎to the region's mountainous landscape and great distances. I would never normally agree to flying domestic airlines in second world countries but having thoroughly researched all other methods of travelling, flying Kazakhstan's Air Astana and Uzbekistan's Uzbekistan Airways was the only way to get from A to B practicably. ‎Flying into Kazakhstan, we travelled overland into the Kyrgyzstan capital Bishkek and further south into the mountains at Son-Kul before flying from Bishkek to Tashkent in Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan Railways gave us easy and reasonably-priced access to key cities along the famed Silk Road (Samarkand and Bukhara), before we headed back to Tashkent for a trip across the land border to Tajikistan's second city Khojand. Central Asia threw up a few surprises along the way, too. There was the presence of Morrisons supermarket carrier bags everywhere (assuming they were sold off cheaply abroad after a corporate re-brand?) and the fact that the manager of the hotel I stayed in in Bishkek had lived, not just in the same town in London I had grown up in, but on the same street. Incongruous to say the least!

My journey around Central Asia took in a region of the world comprised of seemingly contradictory ingredients. These are lands of revered Lenin statues and a communist past, mosques and Muslims, police states and Turkish tea - all mixed together with a strong Korean, Russian or Chinese influence. This really is a crossroads part of the world where cultures, religions and ways of life mix across country borders drawn by a cynical USSR hand. These borders were deliberately etched across populations of Kasakhs, Tajiks, Kyrgyzs and Uzbeks - Stalin's divide and conquer strategy. Central Asia was a key location as part of the Great Silk Road, where traders and pilgrims travelled from China, through Central Asia, into Turkey and on to Mediterranean Europe. Experiencing my small slice of the legendary Silk Road meant that I got to see a region of the world many disregard and will never see, as well as adding four fascinating countries to my travel counter.

 

 

kasakhstan

the largest and richest of the 'stans

Kazakhstan is by far the biggest of the Central Asian countries and the richest, too. Its borders are a Soviet construction ‎dating back to the 1920s. Kasakhstan was the last Soviet republic to admit defeat when the USSR collapsed and declare its independence. It is not the first place which springs to most people's minds when they're considering a holiday but regular readers of this site know I like something a little more off the beaten track. Its oil and mineral wealth means that Kasakhstan, and Central Asia more generally, has a crucial international role to play in the future - with the West and China both jockeying for dominance in the region. Everyone wants to be Kasakhstan's friend and the Kasakhs know it!

Kasakhstan is an interesting crossroads country - its history is written in the faces of the people who, more often than not, look Korean in appearance yet speak something that sounds like Russian. Indeed, the USSR's Korean population in its far east was forcibly relocated to Kazakhstan during the communist era. Kasakhstan felt very eastern Europe and less Asian to me. I would have been happier had it been the other way round - sometimes I felt like I was in Lithuania, others like I was in Russia. I was hoping for something a little different to what I'd seen before. Having paid £60 for my Kasakh visa, the country waived the requirement for UK citizens to have one a fortnight before we left. Typical. It is, however, all part of the government's strategy to turn the trickle of tourists from the West into a flood (first they struck a deal with BA for flights directly from London, and now the relaxation of visa restrictions). This doesn't mean that the authorities are tourist-friendly - you still need to be very much on your guard. If, for instance, you are in the country for more than five days and you fail to 'register' at a government office, you could face imprisonment. As it was, Kasakhstan was my first taste of Central Asia and was my 57th country in total. There was no Borat in sight!

 

almaty

the former kasakh capital

Almaty, up until the last few years, was Kazakhstan's capital. The government has relocated the capital hundreds of kilometres north to Astana to be geographically closer to Russia and to get away from the country's earthquake hotspot. Almaty is characterised by baking hot boulevards, communist era tenements and some more quirky, offbeat sights - some of which you will see below. It has character in abundance. Its new underground Metro system has opened to much fanfare - taking twenty three years to build, it has a whopping... seven stations. Surprisingly, it was almost always deserted when we used it. Its cool tunnels, the design of which mimic other Soviet-era Metros I have been on, offered quick transport and relief from the July heat for just 30p a ride. I would argue travelling on the Metro is infinitely safer than taking a taxi - driving standards are not high in this part of the world. Indeed, en-route to the hotel from the airport, our driver nearly crashed into a car and, a few minutes later, was just one metre away from knocking down a pedestrian at the zebra crossing. The car was so old that there was no seatbelt for me to wear! The hotel was not much better offering, as it did, only cold, brown water to wash in (in Almaty, many older Soviet hotels use hot water pumped from the municipality centrally. Apparently hot water is available in the summer months only on Tuesdays! I kid you not).

Almaty has very few landmarks to speak of, but this doesn't make for a dull visit as it is the weird composition of Asian and communist influences which is part of its appeal. The Zenkov Cathedral is a quirky rendering of the colourful St Basil's in Moscow‎ and will probably be the first stop on your tourist trail, closely followed by the golden domes of the rather impressive Central Mosque. Other sights become tourist attractions without meaning to, like the gangs of blue khaki-wearing soldiers you will see everywhere you go - a little unnerving but all part of the spice of being in Kasakhstan. Similarly, communist era apartment blocks are so ugly they're actually rather interesting. A large chunk of our second day was taken up by a trip up the Kok-Tobe - a cable car ride to Green Hill from which you can take in a stunning vista of the snow capped mountain range which surrounds Almaty, as well as Almaty itself, nestled, as it is, in the valley below. Interrupting the view is the Almaty Tower - a 371m tall relic of the country's Soviet past. It is the tallest steel tubular structure in the world and has been built to withstand all but the most powerful of earthquakes. At the top of the hill is a small zoo, some fairground attractions and, incongruously, a life-size bronze statue of all four of The Beatles! Apparently The Beatles are as popular in Kazakhstan as Norman Wisdom is in Albania. Our stay in Almaty was made all the more special by a wonderful little Korean cafe along the main shopping street. The Kangnam Cafe had some of the friendliest waitresses I have ever had the privilege to be served by and is the only cafe I have been to in the world where they give you free coffee as a welcome!

 

The colourful patterns of the Zenkov Ascension Cathedral - Kazakhstan's nearest relation to St Basil's in Moscow.

 

The golden domes and white tiles of Almaty's central mosque. Right, the Golden Warrior monument in Independence Square - Kasakhstan's symbol of independence.

 

Three examples of geometric concrete fascias on buildings in Almaty - a relic of Kasakhstan's Soviet times. I love the shapes and colours.

 

I love this picture: apartments and artist canvases along Almaty's main Panfilov Street.

 

Post-Stalinist architecture. First, the renovated Lenin Palace now the Palace of the Republic and, right, the Hotel Kazakhstan.

 

The old, and abandoned, Kasakh State Circus building in Almaty. Circuses were a mainstay of Soviet lifestyle.

 

Kazakhstan power: groups of soldiers in blue combat gear are a common sight around Almaty and, right, a rather dictatorship-style image of the Kasakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev in an Almaty Metro station.

 

Buildings close to the Zailiski Alatau mountain range have been designed to mimic the shapes of the mountains.

 

The Almaty TV Tower looks over the city located in the valley below.

 

The Beatles statue at the top of Green Hill and, right, a vending machine sells Lemonadoff - a product from the Soviet days which Kasakhs just can't shake off.

 

 

kyrgyzstan

urban and rural kyrgyz adventures

Kyrgyzstan is famous for its horse riding, its Yurts and its stunning landscapes. It was our second 'Stan and relatively easy to get to from Almaty. Our journey to Bishkek, the Kyrgyz capital, started at Sairan bus station on the edge of Almaty. Minibuses run regularly when they are full and, for 1800KZT (around £5), you get to travel the 200km in a minibus with a bunch of locals. It's about as authentic a travel experience as you can get. Kyrgyzstan has over a million tourists visiting every year, mainly attracting those interested in outdoor experiences like hiking, yurt stays or horse riding. It has a rich heritage rooted in a nomadic tribal culture - and horses play a central part of this tradition: "Horses are our wings" goes the Kyrgyz saying. The danger with Kyrgyzstan is that many a traveller might mistakenly dismiss it as a destination not worth the time or trouble to get to it. Anyone travelling to Kyrgyzstan has to get out into the mountains amongst yaks and shepherds, yurts and goats as this is the true beating heart of Kyrgyzstan. The capital is far less rewarding.

As with many countries in the USSR, Kyrgyzstan gained its independence in 1991 and, after several revolutions since where the president has been overthrown (the last was in 2010), the country is a fair way along the road to becoming a sort-of stable and increasingly democratic country. Kyrgyzstan's Soviet history means that anyone with an interest in Soviet architecture and design will have plenty to enjoy here. Many USSR hallmarks, culturally and physically, are alive and kicking in Kyrgyzstan. There are, of course, horror stories which run parallel to this optimistic narrative: bride kidnappings, reports of plague, deadly plants and ticks and corrupt police officers shaking down tourists for a bribe are the main ones you will come across in any research you do on the country. These tales of potential woe are not exactly unfounded, and it would be unwise to ignore them, but do not let them put you off visiting a country with a hell of a lot to offer.

Having been crammed into hot, sweaty queues at the Kazazkh border, we walked around a small slice of no-man's land before getting to the Kyrgyzs border entry point. With a stamp in my passport, we entered into Kyrgyzstan - my 58th country‎ - our entry made all the more quicker by a driver who kept bursting into fits of laughter with his little sister as they endeavoured, with the help of a cheap sat nav, battered car and regular miscommunication, to get us to our hotel in the capital. Which they did. But only just.

 

Setting off from Almaty's Sairan bus station on our journey on a marashrutka to Bishkek and, right, arriving at the Kasakhstan / Kyrgyzstan border.

 

 

bishkek

the kyrgyz capital

The Kyrgyz capital Bishkek sits close to the country's northern border. It would be safe to say that it does not get a good write-up online. Online forums are awash with cautionary tales and stories of muggings and corrupt police officers targeting tourists. All reviews almost without exception advise against going anywhere at night as it is just not safe. Others warn of 'mugging hotspots' to be avoided if possible. Feeling a little bit rattled by all this, we decided to wimp out and book a cultural tour of Bishkek with an English speaking guide from Kyrgyz Concept, a well-known travel agency with several offices in the city. For $100 we spent the day zooming around the city with 'Bek', an English speaking guide who'd spent time living in Idaho in the US. Having a guide meant we were confident enough to head into the infamous but characterful Osh Bazaar - a wonderful place packed to the rafters with culture and atmosphere - and one of the mugging hotspots. After a few hours it became clear that Bishkek was reasonably safe and that we'd probably been a bit over-cautious. Having said that, having a guide and a car meant that we did get to see, and learn about, a whole host of stuff we would have been oblivious to. Unlike many Central Asian countries, it is perfectly okay to take photos of anyone or anything as the Kyrgyz are quite laid back - a welcome relief from the police state monitoring of Kazakhstan.

Bishkek's Ala-Too square is a sombre, deserted affair. Old Ala-Too Square has a large, imposing statue of Lenin. So often relegated to‎ museums, low-profile locations or even dismantled entirely, this one stands proudly in roughly the same place. Other communist symbolism can be seen all over the city on crests above doors and crowning the tops of tenement buildings. If you're interested in this kind of thing, Bishkek, and Kyrgyzstan more generally, is a real treasure trove. Expect Lenin mosaics, hammer and sickles and large painted monuments from the country's USSR days to be completely in-tact - cherished, almost. In a burgeoning capitalist democracy with an increasingly western outlook, this is quite unusual. There has been no race to shuffle this symbolism off in to the vaults of time like other countries - making Bishkek a sort of open air Soviet museum. We also visited Bishkek's central mosque, entering into the heart of the prayer area, we were invited, with the help of our guide-cum-translator, back the following day to see the end of Ramaddan celebrations when there would be hundreds of Muslims in attendance. Indeed, this was one reason why Osh Bazaar was so busy - packed with people buying in provisions for their big celebratory feasts (think last-minute shopping for Christmas Day and you'll get the general idea). We would have taken up the offer but our plans were to travel out to Son-Kul the next day to sample the rural side of Kyrgyz life. Still, we appreciated their warmth and hospitality nonetheless. Luckily for us, Bishkek had a fair few western-style coffee shops. Often in former Soviet republics the coffee of choice is Nescafe instant - hardly proper coffee. I was glad that Bishkek had embraced the western love of a decent filter coffee as I was beginning to flag after five hours of non-stop capital city sightseeing. 

 

Bishkek's central mosque - a Soviet interpretation in mosque design with its geometric and angular shapes.

 

Scenes from the wonderful Osh Bazaar (1): Traditional Kyrgyz Kalpak hats (whose shape symbolise the mountains and whose four sides symbolise the four points of the compass) and, right, colourful felt slippers.

 

Scenes from the wonderful Osh Bazaar (2): Dried fruit and nuts, traditional Lepyoshka bread for sale in a pram and, right, men tend a fruit stall.

 

The huge archways of sombre, post-Stalinist buildings in Ala-Too Square - Bishkek's Trafalgar. Now mostly empty.

 

In Ala-Too Square with its distinctive arched buildings and, right, guards protect a military monument in Ala-Too.

 

The very severe National Historical Museum of Kyrgyzstan.

 

The Lenin statue in Old Ala-Too Square which depicts him pointing the pathway to true communism. We thought we'd have a go too. Right, a socialist realist statue sits atop a building in the capital depicting endeavour, knowledge and youth.

 

A woman gazes out of her window in a dilapidated communist-era tenement block so characteristic of former USSR countries.

 

Symbolism, symbolism everywhere - did no one stop to think?!

 

A large-scale mosaic depicting a pointing Lenin and other revolutionary symbolism in a small park.

 

The highly symbolic Monument to Heroes commemorating the deaths in Kyrgyzstan's 2002 and 2010 revolutions. The figures are depicted here pushing out the darkness of corruption with the white of the future following behind them. One of the best revolution monuments I have seen.

 

A street vendor sells Maksym - a brown, slightly tangy, barley drink made from fermented grains. It is a Kyrgyz classic. We tried a cup - and spat it out. It was vile. Right, a strange street installation - a classic civic/communist feature of town planning.

 

The Russian Orthodox Church adds a bit of fun and colour to an otherwise grey Bishkek street experience.

 

 

son-kul

Mountain Plateau Yurt Adventures with Kyrgyz Nomads

We did what everyone must do when in Kyrgyzstan - sleep in a yurt on a mountaintop. Our destination was Son-Kul. Son Kul is a large mountain lake on the top of a plateau 30‎16m above sea level - and, after a couple of hours, I began to feel a little compressed - like my head was in a vice, such was the air pressure. Indeed, the plastic ball on my roll-on deodorant popped out and flew across the yurt. An ongoing headache soon kicked in and, to be honest, I was glad of the descent down the mountain the next day. Weather can be unpredictable at this high altitude and we soon found ourselves donning all the clothes we had to keep warm. Son-Kul is also the location of a community based tourism project offering yurtstays to foreign tourists. Not ones to pass up the chance of doing something out of the ordinary, we booked a one night stay on the mountain, sleeping in a yurt as well as doing some horse riding thrown in for good measure. We ate with the shepherd and his family - they had to prepare us special vegetarian meals which we'd helped our guide to buy back in the yurtstay hub town of Kochkor. The Kyrgyzs do not understand vegetarianism. Our hostess, the shepherd's wife, looked dumbfounded when our words were translated to her by our interpreter ("How do they live?" she said in Kyrgyz, looking at us as if we had just landed from Mars).

The plateau is surrounded by snow-capped mountains - a dramatic landscape in which to go horse riding with the shepherd. He spoke very limited English, only saying "cold, cold!" when referring to the change in weather and "lunch!" when one of our horses would stop to eat grass. He had one of the most characterful faces I have ever seen; deeply cut wrinkles a feature of high-altitude and living outdoors, all of his bottom teeth were missing (bar two) and his upper teeth were all gold - a feature I found to be very common across Central Asia. It is not uncommon to spot whole mouths full of gold gnashers. Occasionally he would stop to pick plants and vegetation, stuffing it under the saddle of his horse to take back to camp. Having ridden horses, camels and elephants before, I took to riding this latest beast easily. A couple of hours later it was too cold on the mountain to go any further and, with our horses dragging us into the lake for a quick drink, and with the two dogs which had been play-fighting around the feet of our horses the whole trip finally tiring, we headed for dinner with the family and our sleep in the yurt. Luckily, the shepherd ‎had prepared the fire in our yurt, so it was warm and cosy. Brushing our teeth took place with the help of a bottle of mineral water and a makeshift sink sticking out of the ground in the middle of the plateau. The toilet was a metal shack with a hole in the ground. It stank to high heaven. I decided to hold everything in until we reached our hotel back in the Kyrgyz capital rather than use the thing. I wasn't to know then that I would be spending a little more time in the loo back in Bishkek than I had originally anticipated - more of this later. The second day started with a bump - up early, a shepherdess-cooked pancake for breakfast and then a quick descent down the mountain - the views to and from to Son-Kul are truly stunning and are, undoubtedly, part of the thrill of travelling to the plateau.

 

The long road to the mountain plateau Son-Kul - the journey up and down the mountain is undoubtedly a key part of the adventure.

 

The long winding road to the mountain plateau Son-Kul. Incredible.

 

On Son-Kul with the mountain lake behind. This is 3016 metres above sea level. At 3500 metres, you can expect to develop serious altitude sickness. As it was, my head felt like it was in a vice. I was glad to descend the mountain the following day.

 

Standing outside one of the Yurts on the plateau and, right, a horse grazes in front of a Yurt camp.

 

Our tour guide and our host outside the family's yurt and, right, brushing my teeth over 3000m above sea level at a very rudimentary sink.

 

Yurt stay food: first, our fish meal caught directly from the lake on the plateau and, right, our afternoon tea with biscuits and breads.

 

The lady who waited on us for tea using a traditional tea urn and, right, our rucksacks in the yurt - our bed for the night!

 

Yurt fabric patterns inside and out: practical yet artistic.

 

Horse riding on the plateau - 3016 metres above sea level. Picturesque but freezing cold.

 

With our horseman horse riding on the plateau. All of his teeth were gold.

 

Wildlife on the Son-Kul plateau: yaks and an eagle is almost camouflaged in the grass.

 

Two examples of the strange and slightly freaky plants to be found on the mountain plateau. Yuk!

 

Mountain plateau view as the sun starts to set.

 

 

tokmok & kochkor

provincial kyrgyz cities

Our journey back to Bishkek was punctuated by a trip to a rug-making co-operative in Kochkor where we watched traditional Kyrgyz rugs being made (involving dancing and music), lunch in a yurt‎ and a trip to Burana Tower. We also stopped at Tokmok - a city with a fantastic name and some very communist monuments. It was back in Bishkek where everything started to go wrong. I'll keep it brief: vomiting, diarrhoea - sometimes at the same time. We were both ill and had a flight early the next morning to Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Clearly there was something very wrong with the food we ate at the Kochkor co-operative. Twelve hours later, and having been up most of the night, we were on a flight to Uzbekistan - trying desperately to hold it together on the flight which, luckily, was only an hour long. We arrived in Tashkent in one piece - but only just...

 

Descending from the mountain towards Kochkor and Tokmok, mountain roads were often blocked by wandering animals. Here a flock of sheep holds us up on the mountain road.

 

Tokmok's Soviet memorial celebrating sixty nine years of the USSR - backgrounded by apartment blocks from the same era. The flags are made of concrete. There has been no real rush to shuffle this kind out of the present and into the past. Kyrgyzstan is one big open air Soviet museum.

 

At Kochkor - the last town just before you ascend the mountain at Son-Kul. Right, our guide/translator buys a melon for our dinner in the yurt.

 

Kochkor: Old canvas placards used in communist parades stand lonely (I had to ask the owner to move a ladder out of the way and put them upright for this photo) and, right, standing in front of a mud brick wall - a common sight in Kyrgyzstan and other Central Asian countries.

 

Kochkor: A Lenin placard hangs poignantly on the wall and, right, I have a go at chopping the wool. The woman wasn't impressed and said I was "lazy". To be fair, I had just spent the night freezing in a yurt on a mountaintop.

 

Kochkor: Our female host, in traditional Kyrgyz dress, demonstrates the rolling of the mat and, right, a Kyrgyz girl dances on the mat to create the rug.

 

The Burana Tower just outside Tokmok in the Chuy Valley.

 

 

uzbekistan

The Police State and Jewel in the Central Asian Crown

Uzbekistan is probably the reason why most people travel to this region of the world being, as it is, home to ancient cities, mausoleums and madrasah. It's a key destination for anyone wanting to travel the old Silk Road route. Uzbekistan is, however, a strictly governed police state. ‎President Karimov has ruled the country since it declared independence from the USSR in 1991. Elections have been declared farcical by international observers. The presence of over-zealous security police at any place of strategic importance (metro, railway, TV Tower) and the forbidding of photography in these locations is a reminder to all visitors that you are in a dictatorship country. Travel with your traveller radar well and truly switched on and do think of the 'what if' scenarios. Ironically, the people you need to watch are, in my opinion, the police themselves.

Particular to Uzbekistan is the airport-style security at railway stations (scanners, bag and passport checks), the need to declare everything you are bringing into the country to customs (including any foreign currency) and the need to collect registration slips wherever you are staying as evidence of where you have been. The registrations let the government know where you are and when. Very Big Brother. ‎Then there's the burden of carrying the currency of the Som - a virtually worthless currency which comes in 1000 notes. For £35's worth of Som, expect to have to carry 137 notes in your wallet. Part of your preparations for Uzbekistan, therefore, should be to bring an extra wallet or two with you! None of this should put you off visiting - although I can't say I wasn't glad to leave. Too many officers checking my papers and passport too often. It all got a little wearing after a while. I can only imagine how the population must feel (most of whom probably have a member of their family enrolled in the police state in some way or another). However, if you stay within the rules and remain polite, you should be fine. There are, conversely, benefits to being in a police state - there is very little crime. The country is trying to attract more tourists and police have been instructed by the president to stop 'shaking down' tourists for bribes. ‎In one incident, a taxi driver tried charging us double the fare (the old 'that was the fare per person' routine) as we approached our hotel but just behind us pulled in a squad car full of state police. He panicked and shooed us out of the car as we said to him "Police, police!" The squad car moved away, giving the taxi driver a chance to resume his antics. He barely got going when a green van full of soldiers pulled up and started asking where we were from. The driver returned to his cab defeated and frustrated - and we made our way to the hotel slightly perturbed, having survived the Uzbek baptism of fire.

 

Uzbekistan travel hassles: first, examples of some of my registration slips and, right, the wods of 1000 Som notes. Top tip: bring a spare wallet.

 

 

tashkent

the uzbek capital

Tashkent is the Uzbek capital. The first thing which strikes you is that ‎it is immaculate. There are squads of women in overalls working for the 'Gardening Department' sweeping every speck of dust and leaf from the ground. It is a manly, rugged-looking city, too, with wide, long boulevards and boxy white buildings - many of which looked new. Even Soviet-era apartment blocks seem to rank higher in the design stakes, with creative geometric embellishments or mosaic designs down their sides. Tashkent also has a stunning Metro system dating back to the days when Uzbekistan was in the USSR - of which I have no photographs as these are strictly forbidden by the authorities. The Metro is considered to be of strategic importance - as is Tashkent's Sci-Fi-style TV tower with its tripod legs and mosaic-style band mixing modern and Uzbek designs. At 375 metres in height it is the tallest construction in Central Asia and the 8th tallest tower in the world. We chose not to go in and see the views from its observation deck - you had to register with the authorities to do so and leave your passport with them - our camera would also have been confiscated during our time in the tower. We opted for hassle-free exterior photos only ("but don't take a photo of the Metro over there" our guide warned of the Metro station at the foot of the tower). The mausoleum complex of Khast Imam is possibly Tashkent's most stunning sight - Uzbek-style turquoise mosaic domes house a mausoleum, medrasah and mosque. It is also home to the oldest known copy of the Qu'ran - written in ash and oil on deer skins.

As I just mentioned, we had a guide for our sightseeing trip around Tashkent. This was a means to an end as our first day in Tashkent was spent in our hotel sleeping and running to the toilet. We were really not well and so, with the second day practically the only ‎day left to see the capital, we hired a guide and a driver for four hours from the company Advantours. I managed the four hours - but only just. Temperatures were around 35 degrees - bearable normally but no mean feat when you have sickness and diarrhoea to contend with and all the dehydration that implies. What do you do when you're ill and are in a foreign land? Throw money at it, of course - anything to make your life more comfortable. Which is exactly what we did.

 

The Khast Imam Architectural Complex.

 

A dome in the Khast Imam Architectural Complex and, right, a stork casually makes its way past me in the complex's manicured gardens.

 

The Taskent TV Tower has got to be the most creative TV tower I have ever had the privilege of seeing. It combines modern with traditional Uzbek designs. This tower is from Mars!

 

The gargantuan Hotel Uzbekistan - our hotel for two nights. Its huge bulk dominates the Tashkent skyline and is a relic from Tashkent's Soviet days. The hotel has tried to re-invent itself from a old-style communist hotel into a four star ready for the modern traveller. Having stayed there, I would say they've a way to go yet.

 

Examples of how even Soviet-era apartment blocks rank higher in the design stakes, with creative geometric embellishments or mosaic designs down their sides.

 

Tashkent's Chorsu Bazaar with its colourful domed roof.

 

Inside the Chorsu Bazaar. First, women sell characterful hand brooms and, right, a wider shot of the bazaar.

 

Independence Square's Independence Monument depicting a mother cradling a new born baby as a metaphor for a new-born country and, right, in front of the Uzbekistan Senate (feeling quite poorly at this point).

 

Tashkent's Russian Church and, right, Roma Gypsies on a donkey and cart collect rubbish in central Tashkent.

 

The dull uniformity of apartment blocks on the Tashkent skyline.

 

Catching Uzbekistan Railway's slick bullet train called 'Afrosiyob'. It feels more like an aircraft.

 

 

samarkand

home to the world wonder of the registan ensemble

Samarkand is a two-hour journey from Tashkent using Uzbekistan Railways. For around £30 you can get yourself a seat in business class on the railway's impressive and slick bullet train called 'Afrosiyob'. Staff wear smart and professional uniforms and beckon you onto the train at the entrance to each of the carriages. It feels more like an aircraft. Travelling by train into the heart of Uzbekistan allows you to see the real country outside of the manicured capital city. Expect to see Soviet-era combine harvesters working the fields, thousands of mud brick single storey dwellings, fields of sunflowers and farmers herding their flocks on horseback. There are also some stunning birds to see if you're lucky.

Samarkand is the reason why so many people brave Central Asia. It was a key city along the Silk Road which linked China to India and Persia and is home to The Registan - a large ensemble of three azure coloured mosaic entrance ways topped gloriously with bulbous turquoise domes. It is quite a sight to behold and easily rivals, if not betters, in my opinion, other world sights like the Taj Mahal in India. The Registan has some of the world's oldest madrasahs (old Islamic education centres) dating back, as they do, to the fourteenth century. Minarets and entrance ways tilt at dizzying angles thanks to the earthquakes they have had to endure over the centuries. The Registan ensemble is a sight which really did make me say "wow" out loud. The photographs I have of it here really do not do it justice.

 

The incredible Registan Ensemble with its mosaic domes, archways and minarets.

 

The Registan Ensemble in full view.

 

The incredible Registan Ensemble with its mosaic domes, archways and minarets. The first photograph was later published in Lonely Planet magazine in September 2015 (see here).

 

The detailed mosaic archways of The Registan's madrasahs (1).

 

The detailed mosaic archways of The Registan's madrasahs (2).

 

In front of the Registan and, right, the minarets, entranceway and azure dome.

 

A group of women, wearing characteristically Central Asian bright coloured dresses, walk through The Registan.

 

The wonderful Gur-e Amir complex of mausoleums - an important example of Turkic-Persian architecture.

 

The wonderful Gur-e Amir complex of mausoleums with azure-coloured domes and entrance-ways.

 

 

bukhara

the holiest silk road city

A further three hours westward from Samarkand is the city of Bukhara. We travelled on Uzbekistan Railways' 'Sharq' train - a relic of the country's communist days and a completely disappointing experience having previously travelled on the Afrosiyob. It was certainly more of an authentic experience: three people to each cabin, traditional rugs running down the gangway and a man who carries refreshments in a bucket for your delectation. It isn't until you get into the old city that you finally begin to hope that you've left Russia and the USSR firmly behind. Islamic and Turkic influences are so strong here that they, thankfully, dominate your Bukhara experience with its minarets, medressahs and mosaics. Bukhara is less impressive than Samarkand - although still worthy of a trek out this far being, as it is, a key destination along the Great Silk Road. One sight particularly worth you seeking out is the Char-Minar - a stunning, but petite, gate house with four minarets. Unfortunately, the tourist has had an effect on this part of the world - with some parts of Bukhara feeling, unfortunately, a little Disneyfied.

 

Arriving in Bukhara on the Soviet-era Sharq train from Samarkand (notice the white USSR crest in the centre).

 

The Mir-i Arab Madrasah of the Po-i-Kalyan Ensemble.

 

The soft undulations of The Arc fortress.

 

Bukhara skyline with the Kalyan Minaret, bazaar, azure domes and madrasah.

 

Rugs for sale: traditional Uzbek rugs and, right, Lenin is depicted in weaved form. I'm assuming that's so you can walk on his face?

 

The intricate patterns of the Kalyan Minaret - part of Bukhara's Po-i-Kalyan Complex.

 

Traditional Arabica coffee and traditional sweets at the lovely Silk Road Tea House - a family business.

 

Soviet-era badges for sale and, right, a woman makes a carpet in the traditional way at a crafts centre in Old Bukhara.

 

Traditional Uzbek/Turkmen long hair hats for sale in the Po-i-Kalyan Complex and, right, The Ark.

 

The Kalyan Minaret encroaches on the symmetry of the Madrasah and, right, the Char-Minar - a stunning, but petite, gate house with four minarets.

 

 

tajikistan

the mountainous persian land

Tajikistan is the smallest of the Central Asian countries, clinging to the south eastern corner of the region. Tajikistan borders China to the east, Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west and Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan to its north. Indeed, some parts of the border with Afghanistan and China are still being decided! Around 80% of the country is mountainous. Obviously, when the Soviets were carving up Central Asia, Tajikistan appears to have got what was left. It also lost Samarkand and Bukhara to Uzbekistan - the source of ongoing bad feeling between the two countries. Emasculated from some of its most treasured sites, Tajikistan is considering waiving the need for a visa to try to push hiking and other outdoor activities in the mountains to foreign visitors. As it is, my visa cost £60. I couldn't help thinking that we should have scheduled more time in Tajikistan and felt a sense of longing when the time came to leave.

We crossed the Uzbek-Tajik border for our trip into Tajikistan. On the Uzbek side expect inefficient staff stopping for a fag and a chat whilst you are waiting to be processed; expect a frosty reception and to have your bag rifled through for no apparent reason. You also have to fill out pointless forms - twice. Total time to go through Uzbek shenanigans? One hour. After crossing a few hundred metres of no man's land in the blistering heat ‎we arrived at large gates, guarded by a soldier with a machine gun - the Tajik border. We proceeded to a small window hatch where we had our visas stamped and then onwards towards another soldier with the obligatory machine gun. All the while chickens clucked around our feet. Total time to get through the Tajik border process: ten minutes. We were in Tajikistan! Sound unimportant to you? Well, this little-known country happened to be my 60th country - and so a bit of a special milestone for me but I was also to discover some rather special people there, too.

 

Tajikistan border welcome: "We only seek friendship for friendship we gave and we hope it may flourish wherever men live." Photographed on the Tajik side of the Uzbekistan / Tajikistan border.

 

Posters and hoardings carrying the image of the Tajikistan President Emomalii Rahmon can be seen across Tajikistan. He is genuinely popular, but still, it all feels a little bit dictator to me.

 

 

khojand

tajikistan's second city

Our destination in Tajikistan was Khojand - not the Tajik capital, but its second city. Its previous name was Leninabad but was renamed after the fall of the Soviet Union. Khojand is not exactly going to give your camera much wear and tear - actual attractions are few and far between. However, going to Khojand was rewarding enough to have been more than worthwhile. The main square, Ploshchad Pobedy, is flanked by two mosques on one side, the train station and the wonderful Panchshanbe Bazaar - an indoor market crammed to the rafters with the weird and wonderful. There was also a large fountain in the centre - which came complete with a tramp splashing around in it. Whether he was drowning or washing I cannot be sure. I put on my best British 'stiff upper lip' and walked calmly forth. 

Having been accosted by a gypsy in the square, who took to hitting me on the shoulder and waving her bag at me with her hand outstretched for money, I was a little anxious about going in to the bazaar itself. Within minutes of being in the bazaar people were asking our guide where we were from. "Anglea", "Anglea" (which I'm assuming is England in Tajik) she bellowed back to seemingly a dozen different stallholders who'd asked the question. ‎Stallholders were genuinely pleased to see us. Two stallholders in particular begged to be photographed posing at their stalls with their breads and spices ("he wants you to take a photo of him and his stall", our guide said on two occasions). I did what you should always do when, as a tourist, you've taken a photograph of someone - show them what they look like! Our guide popped into a sausage shop inside the bazaar to collect an order she'd made ("she wants to speak with you", said our guide about the shopkeeper). We were made to feel rather special by the people in the bazaar. It's amazing how you find friendliness and warmth in the most unexpected of places - often from people with so very little. Panchshanbe was the undisputed highlight of our trip to Khojand and a special moment I will never forget: genuine warmth and openness from complete strangers. Experiences like the one I had in this little-known bazaar in this little-known city in this little-known country is the reason why I travel.

Khojand is also home to Central Asia's tallest Lenin statue, complete with a large red hammer and sickle motif ‎alongside. "Do Tajiks look back positively on their Soviet days?" I asked our guide. "Yes, of course" she said, like I'd asked a silly question.

 

The domes of the Sheikh Musliddin Mosque in the main Ploshchad Pobedy square.

 

Khojand's depressing Soviet-era apartment blocks have decorative mosaic sides.

 

The blue domes of Khojand's Central Mosque.

 

The wonderful Panchshanbe Bazaar - an indoor market crammed to the rafters with the weird and wonderful.

 

For sale: spices and seeds and, right, stones which are sold to pregnant women who lick the stones for the minerals they contain. I kid you not.

 

The intricate painting of the roof of the bazaar and, right, a high shot from the first floor of the bazaar. 

 

Panchshanbe Bazaar characters (1): a man asks if I would like to take a photograph of him and his bread stall. We were made to feel rather special by the people in the bazaar.

 

Panchshanbe Bazaar characters (2): "She wants to speak with you", said our guide about the shopkeeper.

 

Panchshanbe Bazaar characters (3): It's amazing how you find friendliness and warmth in the most unexpected of places - often from people with so very little. This man wanted to do a 'gangster pose' but was told not to by our guide - supposedly because it's not authentically Tajik?

 

A characterful tower in Ploshchad Pobedy and, right, the largest Lenin statue in Central Asia.

 

The battlements of the Historical Museum of Sughd.

 

 

videos

The hustle and bustle of Osh Bazaar in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.

 

Entering the wonderful Panchshanbe Bazaar in Tajikistan.

A tuneful busker at Almaty Metro station in Kasakhstan.

 

The Char Minar in Bukhara, Uzbekistan, with a fitting soundscape.

 

 

travel tips

  • Things will go wrong in Central Asia - particularly if, like me, your itinerary is an independent one. Try to build a bit of flexibility into your plans. Have a Plan B in case Plan A ends up being a no-go.
  • Make sure you comply with all administrative requirements - a plea of ignorance will not wash in these countries. Non-compliance can result in imprisonment and deportation. In Uzbekistan, make sure you collect and keep hold of all registration slips issued by your accommodation provider. If they forget, make sure you remind them. We needed ours to leave Uzbekistan at the land border with Tajikistan.
  • Entry requirements to Central Asian countries change regularly. During the planning and visiting of Tajikistan we went from requiring a Letter of Invitation (LoI) to not needing one. Also, Kazakhstan went from us requiring an expensive £50 visa - to not needing one at all.
  • You may wish to reconsider carrying your passport on your person. It's a tricky one because in a number of Central Asian countries it is a legal requirement for tourists to carry their passports. However, stories of police officers shaking down tourists to get at their passports may convince you to leave it back at your hotel. Take a laminated copy out with you instead.
  • Advantours booked our Uzbekistan railway tickets. Their nifty little website meant we could put in our order and, one month before departure, they were purchased on our behalf. Really straightforward and a fantastic service.
  • If you are planning on trying local food, staying in yurts and eating local delicacies (it would be rude to refuse), it might be an idea to take some general antibiotics with you. I was glad I did.

 

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